Rabu, 23 Mei 2012


Dicky Primadika Aprinova
SMPN 3 jember Jl. Jawa No. 8 Jember Telp. (0331) 335334

Water Pollution.
What is water pollution?
Water pollution is any chemical, physical or biological change in the quality of water that has a harmful effect on any living thing that drinks or uses or lives (in) it. When humans drink polluted water it often has serious effects on their health. Water pollution can also make water unsuited for the desired use.
There are several classes of water pollutants. The first are disease-causing agents. These are bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasitic worms that enter sewage systems and untreated waste.
A second category of water pollutants is oxygen-demanding wastes; wastes that can be decomposed by oxygen-requiring bacteria. When large populations of decomposing bacteria are converting these wastes it can deplete oxygen levels in the water. This causes other organisms in the water, such as fish, to die.
A third class of water pollutants is water-soluble inorganic pollutants, such as acids, salts and toxic metals. Large quantities of these compounds will make water unfit to drink and will cause the death of aquatic life.
Another class of water pollutants are nutrients; they are water-soluble nitrates and phosphates that cause excessive growth of algae and other water plants, which deplete the water's oxygen supply. This kills fish and, when found in drinking water, can kill young children.
Water can also be polluted by a number of organic compounds such as oil, plastics and pesticides, which are harmful to humans and all plants and animals in the water.
A very dangerous category is suspended sediment, because it causes depletion in the water's light absorption and the particles spread dangerous compounds such as pesticides through the water.
Finally, water-soluble radioactive compounds can cause cancer, birth defects and genetic damage and are thus very dangerous.
Water pollution is usually caused by human activities. Different human sources add to the pollution of water. There are two sorts of sources, point and nonpoint sources. Point sources discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipelines or sewers into the surface water. Nonpoint sources are sources that cannot be traced to a single site of discharge.
Examples of point sources are: factories, sewage treatment plants, underground mines, oil wells, oil tankers and agriculture.
Examples of nonpoint sources are: acid deposition from the air, traffic, pollutants that are spread through rivers and pollutants that enter the water through groundwater.
Nonpoint pollution is hard to control because the perpetrators cannot be traced.

How do we detect water pollution?
Water pollution is detected in laboratories, where small samples of water are analysed for different contaminants. Living organisms such as fish can also be used for the detection of water pollution. Changes in their behaviour or growth show us, that the water they live in is polluted. Specific properties of these organisms can give information on the sort of pollution in their environment. Laboratories also use computer models to determine what dangers there can be in certain waters. They import the data they own on the water into the computer, and the computer then determines if the water has any impurities.
In most manufacturing processes a lot of heat originates that must be released into the environment, because it is waste heat. The cheapest way to do this is to withdraw nearby surface water, pass it through the plant, and return the heated water to the body of surface water. The heat that is released in the water has negative effects on all life in the receiving surface water. This is the kind of pollution that is commonly known as heat pollution or thermal pollution.
The warmer water decreases the solubility of oxygen in the water and it also causes water organisms to breathe faster. Many water organisms will then die from oxygen shortages, or they become more susceptible to diseases.
For more information about this, you can take a look at thermal pollution.
Eutrophication means natural nutrient enrichment of streams and lakes. The enrichment is often increased by human activities, such as agriculture (manure addition). Over time, lakes then become eutrophic due to an increase in nutrients.
Eutrophication is mainly caused by an increase in nitrate and phosphate levels and has a negative influence on water life. This is because, due to the enrichment, water plants such as algae will grow extensively. As a result the water will absorb less light and certain aerobic bacteria will become more active. These bacteria deplete oxygen levels even further, so that only anaerobic bacteria can be active. This makes life in the water impossible for fish and other organisms.
Typical rainwater has a pH of about 5 to 6. This means that it is naturally a neutral, slightly acidic liquid. During precipitation rainwater dissolves gasses such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. The industry now emits great amounts of acidifying gasses, such as sulphuric oxides and carbon monoxide. These gasses also dissolve in rainwater. This causes a change in pH of the precipitation – the pH of rain will fall to a value of or below 4. When a substance has a pH of below 6.5, it is acid. The lower the pH, the more acid the substance is. That is why rain with a lower pH, due to dissolved industrial emissions, is called acid rain.

Why does water sometimes smell like rotten eggs?
When water is enriched with nutrients, eventually anaerobic bacteria, which do not need oxygen to practice their functions, will become highly active. These bacteria produce certain gasses during their activities. One of these gases is hydrogen sulphide. This compounds smells like rotten eggs. When water smells like rotten eggs we can conclude that there is hydrogen present, due to a shortage of oxygen in the specific water.
Water contains many compounds. A few of these compounds are calcium and carbonate. Carbonate works as a buffer in water and is thus a very important component.
When calcium reacts with carbonate a solid substance is formed, that is called lime. This lime is what causes the white deposit on showers and bathroom walls and is commonly known as lime deposit. It can be removed by using a specially suited cleaning agent.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.
The wars that hit the earth are probably the immediate cause of soil pollution. Not talking in the sense of how many people died but in that it is through this period that many countries found the necessity to improve their living standards. After the world war two, many countries suffered from food shortage and this facilitated the intoruction of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals. Although KNP [ Potassium, Nitrogen, Phosphorus] fertilisers has not led to soil pollution, the application of trace elements has.
Pesticides such as DDT  [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane]a colourless chemical pesticide, which is a potent nerve poison in insects was first widely used to combat diseases such as yellow fever and malaria. It was later used to control and/ or eradicate disease carrying and crop eating insects. DDT was later on discovered to cause endagerement of species in the same food chain as the 
controlled insects, particularly birds. DDT prevents the shelling of bird eggs and in humans causes health threats. 
In yet another famous war of Vietnam in 1970's was introduced another Chemical substance which had a more adverse effect than that of DDT, Dioxin a chemical impurity resulting from the production of the auxin 2,4,5T. Dioxin is a toxic chemical and was used as a defoliant by the American army. Dioxin was a major constituent of argent orange which was applied on trees which would then fall off reaviling enemy camps. After the war it was found that the chemical cause congenital deformalities and mental effects to the children born to the American soldiers and in the  area over which it was applied. In minute amount dioxin has the ability to cause cancer,chloracne, miscarriage, and fetal abnormalities. 
Glass industries have also been responsible of soil pollution. The glass industries uses Arsenic  to eliminate a green colour caused by impurities of iron compounds. because arsenic is a violent poison, yet it is widely used and therefore is a frequent contaminant. James Marsh, supplies a simple method for detecting traces of arsenic so minute that they would escape discovery in ordinary analysis.  Arsenic is sometimes added to lead to harden it and is also used in the manufacture of such military poison gases as lewisite and adamsite. Until the introduction of penicillin, arsenic was of great importance in the treatment of syphilis. In other medicinal uses, it has been displaced by sulpha drugs or antibiotics. Lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and Paris green are used extensively as insecticides. Pollution of land by heavy metals is a result of the mining of ores to extract metals such as tin, silver, nickel, lead, iron, chromium and copper. Most of these metals occur naturally as ions in the soils. Though some metals, such as copper, iron, and zinc , are necessary for plant growth. It is the high concentration if these ions that renders the land unsuitable for plant growth. Soil pollution is widely linked to chemical substances but irrigation. is somehow linked to it as well. 
Soil pollution has been slightly controlled by putting regulations on the use of DDT and introduction of alternatives to it. However the task of eliminating completely soil pollution is not easy, third some third world countries still utilize pollutants such as DDT as pesticides. Mining cannot be stopped because we are in constant need for mineral ores for different applications. 
Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Solutions to Air Pollution

To combat pollution in the United States, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 gave the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to establish and enforce air pollution standards and to set emission standards for new factories and extremely hazardous industrial pollutants. The states were required to meet “ambient air quality standards” by regulating the emissions of various pollutants from existing stationary sources, such as power plants and incinerators, in part by the installation of smokestack scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and other filters. Auto manufacturers were mandated to install exhaust controls or develop less polluting engines. The Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, authorized the EPA to impose stricter pollution standards and higher penalties for failure to comply with air quality standards.
In 1990 when the act was reauthorized it required most cities to meet existing smog reduction regulations by the year 2005. The 1990 amendments also expanded the scope and strength of the regulations for controlling industrial pollution. The result has been limited progress in reducing the quantities of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, particulate matter, and lead in the air. The EPA also regulated hazardous air pollutants, which in 1992 included mercury, beryllium, asbestos, vinylchloride, benzene, radioactive substances, and inorganic arsenic.
The most satisfactory long-term solutions to air pollution may well be the elimination of fossil fuels and the ultimate replacement of the internal-combustion engine. To these ends efforts have begun in the United States, Japan, and Europe to develop alternative energy sources (see energy, sources of), as well as different kinds of transportation engines, perhaps powered by electricity or steam. A system of pollution allowances based on trading emission rights has been established in the United States in an attempt to use the free market to reward pollution reductions, and the international sale of surplus emission rights is permitted under the Kyoto Protocol (see below). Other proposed solutions include raising electricity and gasoline rates to better reflect environmental costs and to discourage waste and inefficiency, and mechanical controls on coal-fired utility plants.
In 1992, 150 nations signed a treaty on global warming at the UN-sponsored summit on the environment in Rio de Janeiro. A UN Conference on Climate Change, held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, produced an international agreement to combat global warming by sharply reducing emissions of industrial gases. Although the United States abandoned the treaty in 2001, saying it was counter to U.S. interests, most other nations agreed that year on the details necessary to make the protocol a binding international treaty, and the necessary ratifications brought the treaty into force in 2005.
Forest Preservation
The Bosque Lluvioso Río Costa Rica will ultimately protect between 4000 and 5000 acres of primary rain forest lands in central Costa Rica.
DendroThe economic foundation of the project rests upon the development of the Bosque Lluvioso Exploratory, a science and education-based rain forest facility to be constructed on a 30-acre, previously cleared portion of the forest. The Exploratory includes an Academy or school for Costa Rican and international students and researchers interested in participating with INBio on projects under their direct supervision.
The project is also an ecotourism facility with a number of hands-on, interactive features for exploring the rain forest. While the Bosque Lluvioso Exploratory promises to be a uniquely entertaining research station on the principles of sustainable architecture and design, our main goal is the permanent protection of a large tract of primary forest lands contiguous to the Braulio Carrillo National Park.
In Keeping with current notions of "best practices" regarding forest restoration, the Bosque Lluvioso Project seeks to restore tropical rain forests in several ways. First, in a far reaching watershed restoration strategy, the Bosque will acquire additional acres of contingent land tracts thereby expanding and protecting an important extension of biological corridors in Central America. These lands represent a patchwork of varying degrees of forest degradation and are natural laboratories for studying ecological succession of tropical rain forest and restoration technologies. The forest corridors are essential to the long-term preservation of biodiversity for countless plant, animal, amphibian and insect species in the Western Hemisphere.
Second, forest restoration will increase the share of rain forest that will be utilized, thus ensuring a more stable hydrologic balance throughout the Bosque landscape and to communities downstream. A portion of secondary rain forest lands will be perpetually protected and available for studies of ecological succession and restoration techniques. As part of the overall strategy to "restart rainforest", degraded portions of the acquired landscapes will be made available for proper ecological succession research and demonstration projects in forest restoration technologies, multi-cropping/forest farming techniques, sustainable agriculture, food and medicinal crop research and ecotourism education. The technologies of tropical forest restoration will have wide application well beyond the boundaries of the Bosque project. The practical application of the research will be incorporated in the interactive education programs of the Exploratory pavilions.

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